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International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies
ISSN: 2028-9324     CODEN: IJIABO     OCLC Number: 828807274     ZDB-ID: 2703985-7
 
 
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Preservation of the architectural heritage : Sultan Qayet-Bey Castle in Rosetta – Egypt as example


[ المحافظة على التراث العمراني: قلعة قايتباي برشيد – مصر نموذجا ]

Volume 18, Issue 4, December 2016, Pages 1239–1259

 Preservation of the architectural heritage : Sultan Qayet-Bey Castle in Rosetta – Egypt as example

Mahmoud Ahmed Darwish1

1 Professor of Islamic Archaeology, Faculty of Arts - Minia University, Egypt

Original language: Arabic

Received 12 August 2016

Copyright © 2016 ISSR Journals. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract


Rosetta is one of the cities in Egypt Lake County, located in the west of the Nile at the mouth of the Rosetta branch of the Mediterranean, and represents one of the corners of the triangle occupied by Delta between Cairo and Damietta and Rosetta, and is one of the important Egyptian ports. Mamluk sultans were interested in the establishment of military fortifications and means of enemy control, where the Lighthouse of Al-Zahir Baybars was the most important of these fortifications, Sultan Qayet-Bey established a tower, the sources said that he visited Rosetta in 884 AH (1429 AD) for the detection of this tower. Before (1985), This castle landmarks were not clear, which is not conducive to the study of the architectural elements, Researcher was General Manager for the Rosetta effects, and Head of the Mission of the Islamic and Coptic monuments sector in the Egyptian Antiquities Authority, and supervised the excavation and restoration of the castle, and rehabilitation to be a tourist attraction, within the national project activities to restore the monuments of Rosetta in (1985). The researcher was able to place a large number of drawings and illustrations of the elements of the castle after identifying all the architectural features and determine the time periods that have passed these milestones, and if possible to identify many of the renovation work throughout the period since the thirteenth century until the nineteenth century and that during the reign of Al-Zahir Baybars, Sultan Qayet-Bey, Sultan Al-Ghouri, Ottoman era and Muhammad Ali, as well as possible access to this castle that had been established along the lines of the lighthouse of Alexandria, which was set up by the castle. Excavations began in preparation for the restoration of the castle, it has made the site depths reached three meters was largely under the groundwater level in search of the foundations of the castle and in particular the internal tower internal parts. Despite the short time that has the excavations, which did not exceed the month, but it resulted in a very significant results, where possible, follow the foundations of the castle and the study of the merits of excavations, documented and photographed, and draw a full outline of the castle in each period that passed by. Thus possible to put an end to the controversy that erupted around this castle and its history and the evolution of its military and its elements, and this has not happened before, it has also been described Citadel, which never one to be described or has studied complete a thorough study.

Author Keywords: Castle, Qayet-Bey, Mamluk, Lighthouse of Alexandria, Zahir Baybars, French campaign.


Abstract: (arabic)


تعد مدينة رشيد إحدى مدن محافظة البحيرة بمصر، وتقع غربي النيل عند مصب فرع رشيد في البحر المتوسط، وتمثل إحدى زوايا المثلث الذي تشغله الدلتا بين القاهرة ودمياط ورشيد، وتعد أحد الثغور المصرية الهامة. وقد اهتم سلاطين المماليك بإنشاء الاستحكامات الحربية ووسائل مراقبة العدو، حيث كان من أهم هذه الاستحكامات الفنار الذي عمره الظاهر بيبرس، وأقام السلطان قايتباي برجا، فقد ذكرت المصادر أنه قام بزيارة مدينة رشيد في عام 884هـ (1429م) للكشف عن هذا البرج. قبل عام (1985) لم تكن معالم هذه القلعة واضحة بما يكفى لدراسة عناصرها المعمارية، وقد كان الباحث مديرا لمنطقة آثار رشيد ورئيسا لبعثة قطاع الآثار الإسلامية والقبطية بهيئة الآثار المصرية، وأشرف على أعمال الحفر والترميم للقلعة، وإعادة تأهيلها لتكون مزارا سياحيا، ضمن فعاليات المشروع القومي لترميم آثار مدينة رشيد عام (1985). استطاع الباحث وضع عدد كبير من المخططات والرسوم التوضيحية لعناصر القلعة بعد تحديد جميع معالمها المعمارية وتحديد الفترات الزمنية التي مرت هذه المعالم كل على حده، وأمكن تحديد العديد من أعمال التجديد طوال الفترة منذ القرن الثالث عشر حتى القرن التاسع عشر وذاك في عهد الظاهر بيبرس والسلطان قايتباي والسلطان الغوري والعصر العثماني وعصر محمد على، كذلك أمكن الوصول إلى أن هذه القلعة قد أنشئت على غرار فنار الإسكندرية الذي أنشئت عليه قلعتها. بدأت أعمال الحفائر تمهيدا لترميم القلعة، وقد تم إجراءها بالموقـع بأعماق وصلت إلى ثلاثة أمتار كان أغلبها تحت مستوى سطح المياه الجوفية بحثا عن أساسات القلعة وبصفة خاصة البرج الداخلي والأجزاء الداخلية.

Author Keywords: قلعة، قايتباي، العصر المملوكي، فنار الإسكندرية، الظاهر بيبرس، الحملة الفرنسية.


How to Cite this Article


Mahmoud Ahmed Darwish, “Preservation of the architectural heritage : Sultan Qayet-Bey Castle in Rosetta – Egypt as example,” International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 1239–1259, December 2016.